With the promise of jobs and opportunity over 70,000 American Indian people left reservation communities for cities such as Los Angeles, Chicago, Denver, Portland, and Minneapolis through the Federal Relocation Act of 1956. The reality of these cities for Indian people often did not match the promises: jobs and decent housing opportunities were scarce. As a result, the new and growing urban American Indian community of the Twin Cities organized to create its own support structure. Minneapolis became the home of many “firsts” such as the first urban Indian Center, the first urban Indian health board, the first Indian-preference housing project, the first Indian-controlled survival school, and was the birthplace of the American Indian Movement. Along with these organizations, a strong sense of community was developed among American Indian people in the city. Much of this activity took place in south Minneapolis in and around Franklin Avenue. The legacy of this period is still evident today, as American Indian organizations cumulatively, are the largest land-owner in the Franklin Avenue area. However as these organizations have matured and increased in number, the overall quality of life for American Indians in the urban area has not significantly improved. As a result, community members have stated that a new direction for collaboration is necessary. Bold and thoughtful community transformation visions and strategies have been articulated by community members, understanding that participation of all community members is essential to addressing challenges and achieving the positive future the community desires.